Bernard Arnault remains Europe’s richest person. Germany leads Europe once again with the largest number of billionaires on Forbes’ 2021 list of the world’s richest.
The wealth of Europe’s billionaires has risen to hit $3 trillion, Forbes found, as the world’s richest remained largely shielded from the financial harm caused by the coronavirus pandemic.
Forbes just released its 2021 list of the World’s Billionaires, which contains 628 European billionaires, up from 511 the previous year. As a group, they are $1 trillion richer than a year ago, suggesting that for the hyperwealthy, the pandemic year has been lucrative.
French luxury goods magnate Bernard Arnault keeps his spot as the No. 3 richest in the world, though his $150 billion fortune is nearly double the $76 billion it was a year ago, as a result of a run-up in the value of LVMH shares. Spanish fast-fashion tycoon Amancio Ortega is Europe’s second richest, worth $77 billion. While that is $20 billion more than a year ago, he dropped in rank to No. 11 richest in the world this year, down from No. 6 last year, as others—mostly U.S. billionaires—outpaced his gains.
Joining the ranks this year are 80 new European billionaires, including Axel Springer CEO Mathias Doepfner (after receiving a gift of nearly $1.2 billion worth of the media giant’s stock from billionaire owner Friede Springer) and Checkout.com founder Guillaume Pousaz of Switzerland, whose stake in the privately held e-commerce payment company is worth an estimated $9 billion. Others who had previously dropped off returned to the list, including easyJet founder Stelios Haji-Ioannou of Greece and the three German brothers who founded tech startup incubator Rocket Internet—Oliver, Marc and Alexander Samwer.
Since publication of the 2020 list, seven European billionaires have died. including Olivier Dassault of France, Heinz Hermann Thiele of Germany, Benjamin de Rothschild of Switzerland, Manuel Jove of Spain, Dmitry Bosov of Russia, David Barclay of the U.K. and Arne Wilhelmsen of Norway. Petr Kellner, the richest Czech billionaire, died in a helicopter crash on March 27—after Forbes had printed the list, so his $17.5 billion fortune is included in these numbers. It’s likely that his wife and children will inherit his fortune.
It’s not just the new billionaires that added to the surge in fortunes. Excluding newcomers and the billionaires who’d dropped off and make a return to the list this year, European billionaires are collectively $797 billion richer than last year. Of note: For the 2020 list, Forbes measured net worth using stock prices and currency exchange rates on March 18, 2020—which turned out to be a relatively low point for many of the globe’s stock indexes and for the value of the euro vs. the dollar. To calculate this year’s list, Forbes used stock prices and exchange rates from March 5, 2021.
Germany is still the European country with the most billionaires, at 136—worth a combined $625 billion, with 26 new billionaires and 9 returning to the list who had dropped off in the past. Unlike France, in Germany it’s not luxury goods but low-cost retail that’s been a driver for increased wealth. Aldi heirs Beate Heister and Karl Albrecht Jr. are Germany’s richest, with a net worth of $39.2 billion as the low-cost supermarket continues to win customers in new territories like the U.K. Dieter Schwarz, owner of discount supermarkets Kaufland and Lidl, is the biggest gainer in dollar terms in Germany. His fortune has risen $17.1 billion since last year to $36.9 billion as values of supermarkets rose amid the pandemic.
France is a billionaire hot spot, thanks largely to the strength of its luxury and fashion sectors. The country has 42 billionaires worth a combined $512.2 billion. LVMH’s Bernard Arnault had the biggest dollar gain in the country. Over at Chanel, brothers Alain Wertheimer and Gerard Wertheimer, the grandsons of founder Pierre Wertheimer, have also seen their wealth double from $17 billion to $35 billion each over the year alongside rising values in Europe’s biggest luxury brands.
Europe’s top ten richest billionaires are worth a collective $552 billion and added $216 billion to their total estimated net worths between 2020 and 2021.
Europe’s Top Ten Richest People 2021
1. Bernard Arnault. France. $150 billion
2. Amancio Ortega Spain. $77 billion
3. Francoise Bettencourt Meyers France. $73.6 billion
4. François Pinault France. $42.3 billion
5. Germany. $39.2 billion
6. Dieter Schwarz Germany. $36.9 billion
7. Giovanni Ferrero Italy. $35.1 billion
8. Alain Wertheimer France. $34.5 billion
9. Gerard Wertheimer France. $34.5 billion
10. Russia. $29.1 billion
Country By Country
The following European countries have at least nine billionaires on this year’s Forbes list.
NUMBER OF BILLIONAIRES: 12 vs. 9 in 2020
TOTAL NET WORTH: $62.7 billion vs $42.1 billion in 2020
Red Bull cofounder Dietrich Mateschitz remains the country’s richest, having seen his net worth rise by over $10 billion since last year. Ulrich Mommert was Austria’s sole new billionaire and two former billionaires, Reinold Geiger and Stefan Pierer, return to the list in 2021.
🇨🇿 Czech Republic
NUMBER OF BILLIONAIRES: 9* vs 8 in 2020
TOTAL NET WORTH: $41.4 billion vs $32.3 billion in 2020
One new Czech billionaire joined the ranks: Eduard Kucera, cofounder of London-listed computer security firm Avast.
*Until his death in a helicopter crash on March 27, Petr Kellner, founder of the PPF Group, was Czechia’s richest person. His fortune will likely be passed to his immediate family. Because he died after Forbes had finalized the 2021 list, his fortune is included in the European total.
NUMBER OF BILLIONAIRES: 10 vs 8 in 2020
TOTAL NET WORTH: $61.3 billion, vs. $42.4 billionin 2020
Fashion and retail mogul Anders Holch Povlsen remains Denmark’s richest man with an estimated net worth of $13.2 billion, a $5.2 billion year-on-year rise. The Lego dynasty also enjoyed a good year with all four members of the Kristiansen clan—Kjeld Kirk Kristiansen, Thomas Kirk Kristiansen, Sofie Kirk Kristiansen and Agnete Kirk Thinggaard—up $2.6 billion each to $8.7 billion each. Two former billionaires returned: André Kasprzak and Anna Kasprzak of Ecco shoe fame.
NUMBER OF BILLIONAIRES: 42 vs. 39 in 2020
TOTAL NET WORTH: $512.2 billion vs. $304.3 billion in 2020
The aforementioned Bernard Arnault sailed past the $100 billion mark in November, and his net worth kept rising as he and his family’s 47% stake in LVMH–the company behind the brands Louis Vuitton, Marc Jacobs, Christian Dior et al–continued to grow. Francoise Bettencourt Meyers, the granddaughter of L'Oréal’s founder, has seen her wealth rise by $24.7 billion to $73.6 billion, while François Pinault at Kering–owner of luxury brands Saint Laurent, Alexander McQueen and Gucci–has seen his wealth rise $15.3 billion to $42.3 billion. Just two new French billionaires arrived in 2020, Stéphane Bancel of biotech firm Moderna, known for its Covid-19 vaccine; and Olivier Pomel, founder of Datadog, while two former billionaires have returned to the list. Olivier Dassault, an heir to the Dassault aerospace and aviation fortune, died in a helicopter crash in March at age 69.
NUMBER OF BILLIONAIRES: 136 vs 107 in 2020
TOTAL NET WORTH: $625 billion vs. $447 billion in 2020
While the low-cost-supermarket dynasties of Aldi and Lidl top the net worth pile in Germany, the country also gained 26 new billionaires, the most high-profile of who include: Erich Wesjohann of agri-giant EW Group; Mathias Doepfner, the CEO of media firm Axel Springer, and the Birkenstock brothers Alex and Christian.
NUMBER OF BILLIONAIRES: 9 vs. 9 in 2020
TOTAL WEALTH: $42.9 billion vs. $35.8 billion in 2020 in 2020
Construction tycoon Pallonji Mistry remains the country’s richest, with an estimated net worth of $14.6 billion, up $3.5 billion on the year. Just after Forbes finalized the list, payments firm Stripe raised new funding from private investors valuing the company at $95 billion, boosting the fortunes of sibling founders John and Patrick Collison from the $3.2 billion that appears on this list (based on March 5 values) to $9.5 billion each.
NUMBER OF BILLIONAIRES: 51 vs. 36 in 2020
TOTAL NET WORTH: $204.5 billion vs. $125.6 billion in 2020
In Italy, 11 new billionaires were minted, while 4 returned to the list.
Italy’s richest person, Giovanni Ferrero of Nutella, Tic Tac and Kinder Egg fame, saw a $10.6 billion uptick of his net worth, to $35.1 billion. Joining the list are 11 new billionaires, including Marina and Giuliana Caprotti, who took control of the Esselunga supermarket chain, and Sergio Stevanato of medical packaging firm Stevanato Group.
NUMBER OF BILLIONAIRES: 12 vs. 11 in 2020
TOTAL NET WORTH: $43.8 billion vs. $28.7 billionin 2020
Charlene de Carvalho-Heineken remains Holland’s richest person, at $16.7 billion, after adding $3.9 billion to her brewery fortune over the last 12 months. All of the Netherlands’ 12 billionaires saw their net worth rise in 2021.
NUMBER OF BILLIONAIRES: 12 vs. 12 in 2020
TOTAL NET WORTH: $38.3 billion vs $26.2 billionin 2020
Andreas Halvorsen, of the aptly named Viking Global Investors, is Norway’s richest person, with an estimated net worth of $6.3 billion, up $1.5 billion on the year. Arne Wilhelmsen, a cofounder of Royal Caribbean Cruises, died at age 90 in April 2020.
NUMBER OF BILLIONAIRES: 117 vs. 99 in 2020
TOTAL NET WORTH: $583.9 billion vs. $385.1 billion in 2020
Russia’s richest person, steel magnate Alexey Mordashov, is worth $29.1 billion, up by $12.3 billion from a year ago. Other big gainers: Telegram founder and majority owner Pavel Durov (up $13.8 billion) and e-commerce retailer Tatyana Bakalchuk (up $12 billion). There are 13 new Russian billionaires this year.
NUMBER OF BILLIONAIRES: 30 vs. 24 in 2020
TOTAL NET WORTH: $137 billion vs. $97.1 billion in 2020
Spain’s richest person, Amancio Ortega, of Inditex fame, got $21.9 billion richer over the last year, putting his estimated net worth at $77 billion. José Elías, one of three newcomers in 2021, built a fortune in renewable energy; he is chairman and significant shareholder of Audax Renovables, which manages wind farms and is developing solar projects.
NUMBER OF BILLIONAIRES: 41 vs. 31 in 2020
TOTAL NET WORTH: $182 billion vs. $106.6 billion in 2020
Sweden’s richest person, Stefan Persson, of H&M fame, grew $7.8 billion wealthier over the course of the year, putting his 2021 figure at $21.3 billion. The Tetra Laval heirs—members of the Rausing family—are big winners over the last 12 months, with Finn, Jorn and Kirsten Rausing collectively $13.2 billion richer. Sweden has eight new billionaires, including Sebastian Siemiatkowski and Victor Jacobsson, cofounders of fintech firm Klarna.
NUMBER OF BILLIONAIRES: 40 vs. 35
TOTAL NET WORTH: $145.5 billion vs. $96.4 billion in 2020
Shipping tycoons Gianluigi and Rafaela Aponte are the richest in Switzerland, with a net worth of $10.7 billion, having added $4.2 billion over the year. One newcomer to Switzerland (via London and Dubai): Checkout.com founder Guillaume Pousaz, with an estimated net worth of $9 billion after the latest round of investment valued the payments startup at $15 billion in January.
🇬🇧 United Kingdom
NUMBER OF BILLIONAIRES: 56 vs. 45
TOTAL NET WORTH: $213.9 billion vs $152.9 billion in 2020
James Ratcliffe replaces the Hinduja brothers as the U.K.’s richest, with a $17 billion fortune, up $6 billion on the back of a rebound for the chemicals sector into which his Ineos empire falls. There are three new billionaires, including Matt Moulding of e-commerce firm Hut Group and electric vehicle startup Fisker Inc.’s cofounder and chief financial officer, Geeta Gupta-Fisker. Nine former U.K. billionaires who had dropped off—among them, former press baron Richard Desmond and David McMurtry of engineering mainstay Renishaw–are back on the list.
Are billionaires losing money? ›
The combined wealth of the world's 500 richest people fell by a whopping $1.4 trillion in 2022, according to Bloomberg. The cumulative net worth of big-name billionaires Elon Musk, Jeff Bezos, Changpeng Zhao, and Mark Zuckerberg dropped $392 billion.How many billionaires in Europe? ›
Billionaires by Region.
|Number of billionaires||954|
|Collective Billionaire Wealth||$3.1 trillion|
Forbes revealed that there are 2,668 billionaires in the world today, but who is the richest amongst them? According to data from Forbes' Billionaire list which shows real-time net worth (Updated: Jan 30), here are the 10 richest people in the world.Which European country has the most millionaires? ›
Switzerland was the country with the highest rate of millionaires worldwide in 2021, with 16.4percent of the adult population owning assets worth more than one million U.S. dollars.How much cash do billionaires usually have? ›
A billionaire is someone who has assets or a net worth of at least one billion currency units in their native currency.Are billionaires happy with their life? ›
Yes, billionaires are happy and tend to be happier than the average person. There are a few different reasons for this, and most of them are not just because they have more money. Of course, having billions of dollars will make portions of life simpler, and that will aid in an increase in happiness.Is Europe richer than America? ›
By almost any economic statistic we can find, Americans tend to enjoy higher material standards of living than their European counterparts. But when it comes to quality-of-life measures that aren't included in GDP, Europe tends to come out ahead.Who are Trillionaires of the world? ›
Net worth refers to a person's total assets—including business interests, investments, and personal property—minus their debts. No one has yet claimed the title of trillionaire, although the speed at which the world's wealthiest individuals have grown their fortunes suggests that it could happen in just a few years.Which country has no of billionaires? ›
|Country||# of Billionaires||Billionaires per 1M people|
What is Donald Trump's net worth? ›
Forbes estimates it at $3.2 billion as of October 26, 2022, with Trump making much higher claims. Trump received a loan from his father, and he has also made money from fundraising, real estate ventures, hotels, casinos, golf courses, and Trump-branded products including neckties and steaks.Who is the oldest billionaire in the world 2022? ›
Chang Yun Chung - Wikipedia.Which countries in Europe have the most billionaires? ›
In 2021, Germany had the highest number of billionaires in Europe and the third highest in the world at 176. The Untied Kingdom followed with 120 billionaires, while Switzerland had 111.Which European country has the most poverty? ›
- Ukraine. With a per capita GNI of $3,540, Ukraine is the poorest country in Europe as of 2020. ...
- Georgia. Georgia posted a GNI per capita of $4,290 in 2020, lower than any European country except Ukraine. ...
- Kosovo. ...
- Moldova. ...
- Albania. ...
- North Macedonia. ...
- Bosnia and Herzegovina. ...
- Germany (€3.8 trillion),
- United Kingdom (€2.6 trillion),
- France (€2.5 trillion),
- Italy (€1.8 trillion),
- Spain (€1.2 trillion)
According to Schwab's 2022 Modern Wealth Survey (opens in new tab), Americans believe it takes an average net worth of $2.2 million to qualify a person as being wealthy. (Net worth is the sum of your assets minus your liabilities.)How much cash do millionaires keep in the bank? ›
Studies indicate that millionaires may have, on average, as much as 25% of their money in cash. This is to offset any market downturns and to have cash available as insurance for their portfolio. Cash equivalents, financial instruments that are almost as liquid as cash.What bank do billionaires use? ›
Bank of America, Citibank, Union Bank, and HSBC, among others, have created accounts that come with special perquisites for the ultrarich, such as personal bankers, waived fees, and the option of placing trades. The ultrarich are considered to be those with more than $30 million in assets.What is the personality of a billionaire? ›
They're very focused and have big ideas. They are also quite talented in envisioning possible futures.... Enthralled with a magnificent obsession, they bring an intense focus to whatever they want to accomplish."What personality do billionaires have? ›
Researchers say traits like risk tolerance, emotional stability and extraversion were especially evident among self-made millionaires, and “less pronounced” in people who inherited their fortunes. The higher the wealth, the more pronounced those personality traits were, the study said.
What personality traits do billionaires have? ›
Millionaires, especially self-made millionaires whose wealth wasn't inherited, have five particular personality traits, according to new research. The five personality traits that are particularly standout are: risk-taking, emotional stability, openness, extraversion and conscientiousness.Is Europe cheaper to live in than America? ›
Key Takeaways. Overall, Europe has a lower cost of living due to lower healthcare expenses, a weakening euro currency, and low inflation. Europeans, however, tend to pay more of their income to taxes, and average wages tend to be lower than in America.What country is richer than America? ›
The richest country in the world is Luxembourg. According to the IMF, the duchy's GDP per capita is $135,046. The total gross domestic product exceeded $86 billion.Why is US inflation higher than Europe? ›
Headline inflation rates in the U.S. and Europe are similar, but the composition of the underlying data in the two regions differs greatly. Demand is driving significantly higher U.S. core inflation, while energy prices are a more significant factor in European headline inflation.Who is the closest person to being a trillionaire? ›
Of the 21 individuals who stand a chance of reaching this phenomenal milestone in their lifetime, Elon Musk is predicted to be the first.Who is the richest person ever existed? ›
The richest person ever is thought to have been an emperor with an accumulation of wealth often described as “unimaginable” or “incalculable.” The title goes to 14th-century African emperor Mansa Musa, and his wealth has been estimated to be the modern day equivalent of $400 billion.Who is the richest man in history? ›
The richest man in the world, to the surprise of many, existed in medieval times between 1280 and 1337 BC. His name is Mansa Musa and he was emperor of Mali, with his empire occupying a vast territory that spread from Nigeria to the coast of Senegal.Who is richer USA or China? ›
The United States is the richest country in the world with the highest GDP, as of 2021. China is the second richest country in the world with a $17.734 trillion GDP.How many states have no billionaires? ›
Eight states have no billionaire residents at all: Alabama, Alaska, Delaware, New Hampshire, New Mexico, North Dakota, Vermont and West Virginia.What is the smallest country with a billionaire? ›
Luxembourg is a small, landlocked country located in western Europe and bordered by Belgium, France, and Germany. With a population of 642,371, Luxembourg is the only Grand Duchy in the world. Its GDP per capita of $140,694 makes it the world's richest.
How many billionaires are in Mexico? ›
Key Takeaways. Mexico is home to thirteen of the world's 2,755 billionaires, as measured in U.S. dollars.How many millionaires are in Mexico? ›
|Rank by number of billionaires (9/15/20)||State or federal district||Billionaires/ State's 10M pop. (7/19 census) (9/15/20)|
The richest president in history is purported to be Donald Trump. His net worth, however, is not precisely known because the Trump Organization is privately held. Truman was among the poorest U.S. presidents, with a net worth considerably less than $1 million.What was Ronald Reagan's net worth? ›
Ronald Reagan ranks second on our list for net worth when entering office. The one-time actor had $10.6 million to his name before starting the first of two terms in 1981, growing that to $15.4 million by the time he died in 2004.What is Kanye West net worth? ›
Kanye West's net worth in 2023 is around $400 million.
Here in this article we will share Biography of Kanye West, Kanye West's Age/ Spouse, About Career of Kanye West and we will also talk about Kanye West's Suspension from Twitter.
noun. informal. a person who is enormously rich.Who is the No 1 person in the world? ›
|No.||Name||Net worth (USD)|
|1||Jeff Bezos||$131 billion|
|2||Bill Gates||$96.5 billion|
|3||Warren Buffett||$82.5 billion|
|4||Bernard Arnault||$76 billion|
Key Takeaways. At $224.5 billion, the Waltons are the richest family in the world thanks to their massive stake in Walmart, the world's largest company by revenue.What are the 2 richest countries in Europe? ›
Where the wealthy live in Europe? ›
Share this article.
|Rank||City||Super-Rich per 100k Population|
List of European countries by GDP. Germany is the largest economy in Europe, followed by United Kingdom, France, Italy, and Russia. These five together hold a 50% share of the European economy.Which European country has the least debt? ›
At the end of 2021, the lowest ratios of government debt to GDP were recorded in Estonia (17.6%), Bulgaria (23.9%), Luxembourg (24.5%), Sweden (36.3%) and Denmark (36.6%).Which European country has the most free economy? ›
Economic freedom, overall index (0-100), 2022 - Country rankings: The average for 2022 based on 41 countries was 70 index points. The highest value was in Switzerland: 84 index points and the lowest value was in Belarus: 53 index points.Which country is No 1 poor country? ›
Which is the world's poorest country? Burundi is the world's poorest country followed by Central African Republic, DR Congo, South Sudan and Somalia as the poorest. The richest countries are Luxembourg, Singapore, Ireland, Qatar and Switzerland. Soberingly, 19 of the 20 poorest countries are all located in Africa.Which EU country has best quality of life? ›
- Sweden. #1 in Quality of Life. #5 in Best Countries Overall. ...
- Denmark. #2 in Quality of Life. #10 in Best Countries Overall. ...
- Canada. #3 in Quality of Life. ...
- Switzerland. #4 in Quality of Life. ...
- Norway. #5 in Quality of Life. ...
- Finland. #6 in Quality of Life. ...
- Germany. #7 in Quality of Life. ...
- Netherlands. #8 in Quality of Life.
Europe's rich agricultural and industrial diversity has made the continent a center of trade and commerce for centuries. It is centrally located between the two other “Old World” continents, Africa and Asia.What 3 countries have the best economy? ›
- Switzerland. #1 in Economically stable. #1 in Best Countries Overall. ...
- Germany. #2 in Economically stable. ...
- Canada. #3 in Economically stable. ...
- Netherlands. #4 in Economically stable. ...
- United Kingdom. #5 in Economically stable. ...
- Australia. #6 in Economically stable. ...
- Japan. #7 in Economically stable. ...
- Sweden. #8 in Economically stable.
Billionaires have had a bad year. Globally, the world's billionaires lost nearly $2 trillion, combined, in 2022, according to Forbes.Which billionaire lost money in 2022? ›
Mark Zuckerberg has shed $90 billion in 2022 while Jeff Bezos and Elon Musk have both lost $58 billion as gloomy earnings reports leave tech stocks reeling. The party may have finally ended for tech founder billionaires.
How much wealth lost in 2022? ›
Specifically, Global SWF estimates that sovereign wealth AUM fell from $11.5 trillion in 2021 to $10.6 trillion in 2022, and public pension funds from $22.1 trillion to $20.8 trillion, amounting to a $2.2 trillion overall impact.Which billionaire lost more money? ›
That makes Musk the first person ever to lose $200 billion in wealth, Bloomberg reported last week. The bulk of Musk's wealth is tied up in Tesla (TSLA), whose stock plunged 65% in 2022.Who lost the most money in one day? ›
LVMH CEO Bernard Arnault lost around $4.06 billion of net worth, followed by Microsoft founder Bill Gates whose fortune dropped by a cool $2.8 billion.How much money did Bill Gates lost? ›
Microsoft's Bill Gates: US$27.3 billion. While many of the billionaires on this list lost their money from stock plunges, Microsoft co-founder and former wealthiest man in the world Bill Gates lost money for a different reason: charity.Who has lost the most money in history? ›
Tesla CEO Elon Musk has broken a record for the largest amount of money lost by one person, according to Guinness World Records. Musk lost between $180 billion and $200 billion since November 2021, largely due to the poor performance of Tesla stocks in recent years, according to the report.Who is the youngest millionaire in the world 2022? ›
Korean gaming pioneer Kim Jung-ju's teenage daughter Kim Jung-youn is world's youngest billionaire. Kim Jung-youn, daughter of Nexon-founder Kim Jung-ju, becomes the world's youngest billionaire thanks to her inheritance from her late fathe...Can a billionaire go broke? ›
Can billionaires become bankrupt? Usually, billionaires and their teams are smart enough to protect their wealth. However, unfavorable situations can make them bankrupt. Adverse economic scenarios, bad investment decisions, or fraud can make billionaires file for bankruptcy.How much does the average American have in savings 2022? ›
The average amount of personal savings in the U.S.
According to the Northwestern Mutual Planning and Progress Survey for 2022, the average amount of personal savings in 2022 came in at $62,000. This is a considerable decrease from the $73,000 average amount of personal savings reported on the same survey in 2021.
United States - Federal Government; Net Worth (IMA), Level was -20997153.00000 Mil. of $ in July of 2022, according to the United States Federal Reserve.How much has the average retirement lost in 2022? ›
401(k) Losses in 2022
Twelve months later, the figure is $97,200, according to Fidelity research.
Who is the healthiest billionaire? ›
- Bernard Arnault, co-founder, chair, and CEO of LVMH, is the richest person and the richest man in the world with a net worth of $190 billion. ...
- After Arnault is co-founder and CEO of Tesla, Elon Musk.
Later in life, he became known for his eccentric behavior and reclusive lifestyle—oddities that were caused in part by his worsening obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), chronic pain from a near-fatal plane crash, and increasing deafness. Howard Robard Hughes Jr.